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Probably he was named after his mentor and teacher, and also the first Archbishop of Sofia, Peter Solinat, he came to be well known to the scientific and cultural circles in Bulgaria not until the s, although his life and work coincides with those of already famous men of letters as Petar Parchevich , Filip Stanislavov and Franchesko Soymirovich. He graduated school in the monastery St.

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Francisc in Ancona Petar Bakshev studied later in Vatican from to , where besides theology he studied also grammar, philosophy, logic, and church history. In Pope Urban II declared Sofia to be the seat of the Bulgaria's Catholic Archbishopric and appointed Peter Bogdan Bakshev as the Archbishop; the sole purpose of his activity was the social-political, confessional and cultural liberation of Bulgarians from the Ottoman oppression, and the revival of the Bulgarian state.

Most Bulgarian historians think of him as the forefather of the Bulgarian National Revival , he had a very good language knowledge and performs the biggest writing activities. In P. Bogdan put significant efforts into the development of the school in Chiprovtsi established in Bakshev was not afraid to write to the Congregation that the school was useful not only for religion but for the Bulgarians themselves, he asked for teachers and books on theology, as well as on some non-clerical subjects: Grammar, Maths, Philosophy and Logic.

Petar Bogdan Bakshev left behind rich literary heritage. His numerous translations and reports are interesting not only as historical readings, but also as itineraries, he is considered to be the creator of the Bulgarian historiography , with his first work " Description of the Bulgarian Kingdom " In his other works he mentioned also the geographical and ethnic borders of Bulgaria and Bulgarian people in Moesia , Thrace and Macedonia.

In his works are also many facts about the past of certain towns and the local villages. After two centuries, these boundaries were confirmed with the firman of the Turkish sultan for the formation of the Bulgarian Exarchate. The original is believed to have included 20 chapters; some data implied that the work was printed in Venice , but there is not a single copy preserved. This book was an end of his long lasting diplomatic work. Petar Bogdan's greatest work, a history of Bulgaria, was written a century before the Istoriya Slavyanobolgarskaya of Paisius of Hilendar , but was published after his death.

Obsessed by religious activities, this fighter died in , when he was It was one of the largest and most populous countries of 16th— to 17th-century Europe. The First Partition of Poland in and the Second Partition of Poland in reduced the state's size and the Commonwealth collapsed as an independent state following the Third Partition of Poland in The Union possessed many features unique among contemporary states.

Its political system was characterized by strict checks upon monarchical power; these checks were enacted by a legislature controlled by the nobility. This idiosyncratic system was a precursor to modern concepts of democracy, constitutional monarchy, federation. Although the two component states of the Commonwealth were formally equal, Poland was the dominant partner in the union; the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth was marked by high levels of ethnic diversity and by relative religious tolerance, guaranteed by the Warsaw Confederation Act The Constitution of acknowledged Catholicism as the "dominant religion", unlike the Warsaw Confederation, but freedom of religion was still granted with it.

After several decades of prosperity, it entered a period of protracted political and economic decline, its growing weakness led to its partitioning among its neighbors during the late 18th century. Shortly before its demise, the Commonwealth adopted a massive reform effort and enacted the May 3 Constitution—the first codified constitution in modern European history and the second in modern world history.

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The official name of the state was The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Latin term was used in international treaties and diplomacy. In the 17th century and it was known as the Most Serene Commonwealth of Poland, the Commonwealth of the Polish Kingdom, or the Commonwealth of Poland, its inhabitants referred to it in everyday speech as the " Rzeczpospolita ".

Western Europeans simply called it Poland and in most past and modern sources it is referred to as the Kingdom of Poland, or just Poland; the terms: the Commonwealth of Poland and the Commonwealth of Two Nations were used in the Reciprocal Guarantee of Two Nations. Other names include the Republic of Nobles and the First Commonwealth, the latter common in Polish historiography. Poland and Lithuania underwent an alternating series of wars and alliances during the 14th century and early 15th century.

Several agreements between the two were struck before the permanent Union of Lublin. This agreement was one of the signal achievements of Sigismund II Augustus , last monarch of the Jagiellon dynasty. Sigismund believed, his death in was followed by a three-year interregnum during which adjustments were made to the constitutional system. The Commonwealth reached its Golden Age in the early 17th century, its powerful parliament was dominated by nobles who were reluctant to get involved in the Thirty Years' War. The Commonwealth was able to hold its own against Sweden , the Tsardom of Russia , vassals of the Ottoman Empire , launched successful expansionist offensives against its neighbors.

In several invasions during the Time of Troubles , Commonwealth troops entered Russia and managed to take Moscow and hold it from 27 September to 4 November , when they were driven out after a siege. Commonwealth power began waning after a series of blows during the following decades.


A major rebellion of Ukrainian Cossacks in the southeastern portion of the Commonwealth began in It resulted in a Ukrainian request, under the terms of the Treaty of Pereyaslav , for protection by the Russian Tsar. The medieval university disappeared by and was replaced by "three public lectureships" which did not award degrees and were suspended in the s "for lack of money"; the university was not reestablished in Modena until the s and did not receive an imperial charter until Some famous students who attended the University include Ludovico Antonio Muratori , a noted Italian historian and scholar who graduated in , the playwright Carlo Goldoni in the 17th century and, in the last century, Sandro Pertini , who became President of the Italian Republic ; the University of Modena dates back to , a few decades after the birth of the University of Bologna , making it one of the oldest universities in Italy and the world.

It was established by the city of Modena, which financed professors' contracts through local taxation. The first to be invited to teach was Pillio da Medicina from Bologna.

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The School of Law was subsequently made up the nucleus of the University. In the two centuries that followed, the Studium expanded from legal studies to include the training of notaries and the study of medicine as well; the subsequent history of the University was profoundly marked by the changing fortunes of the ruling Este family. Between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, when the Court of Este settled in Ferrara , academic titles were no longer awarded, the activities of the Studium were reduced.

Only after the Court moved to Modena in did the University regain its original splendour and academic prestige , receiving an imperial charter from Duke Francis II ; the University offered multiple disciplines, including law and surgery, mathematical and natural sciences. The Department of Economics was established in , followed by the Department of Engineering in ; the year was of fundamental importance in the history of the University when the Reggio Emilia site was instituted and the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia was founded, with the support of local institutions.

In fact, Reggio Emilia had an ancient and noble tradition of university studies which ended in following the reform of Duke Francis II of Este. A School of Law, proposed by the city, is mentioned as early as In the seventeenth century, a School of Letters was opened at the Seminary and, in the following century, a chair of Scholastic Theology was established along with schools of grammar and rhetoric. However, its activities continued only until when, after the reform of Francis II, its right to grant degrees was taken away and given to the University of Modena; the creation of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia not only combined the ancient traditions of the two cities into one institution, but gave a new and powerful boost to the development of the University, resulting in a substantial growth of scientific and academic activities, which still continues today.

It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process.

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The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, ; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records. The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata.

VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Franciscans The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church , founded in by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare , the Third Order of Saint Francis , they adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi , Anthony of Padua , Elizabeth of Hungary , among many others.

Francis began preaching around and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in to form a new religious order; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares in , which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions.

The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines , after Bernardino of Siena , although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the name of the original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance.

Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully. He had cut all ties that remained with his family, pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ.

Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, had others who wished to join him do the same; those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor. The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance, they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis.

First OrderThe First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are called the Franciscans; this order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi. Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum.

Francis thus referred to his followers as " Fraticelli ", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called the Minorites; the modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance.

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